PM Narendra Modi to travel to Italy for G7 summit, his first foreign trip of third term | Saudi Arabia clashed with America and G7 was formed: Manmohan had threatened the club of rich countries; Now why did Meloni invite Modi

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Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni during the G20 Summit (File) - Dainik Bhaskar

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni on the sidelines of the G20 Summit (File)

Today, on 13th May, the leaders of the 7 most powerful countries of the world are gathering in the Italian city of Fasano, famous for its white houses and arches. The meeting of the largest organization of rich countries 'G7' is starting here. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also been invited as a guest in the meeting of this organization.

Italy's Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni had sent them an invitation to this summit even before the elections. However, this is not the first time that India has been invited as a guest by this organization. India first participated in this summit in 2003. For this, the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee had gone to France.

India is not a part of this organization, yet why has PM Modi been invited, can India also join this club of the richest countries… Know the answers to all these questions from foreign affairs expert Rajan Kumar

Saudi had made oil 300% costlier, then G7 was formed
It was the year 1973. A war had broken out between Israel and Arab countries in the Middle East. Meanwhile, US President Richard Nixon announced to give 18 thousand crore rupees to help Israel. Saudi Arabia's 'King Faisal', who supported Palestine, was very angry with this decision of America. He made a plan to teach a lesson not only to America but also to all the western countries supporting Israel.

King Faisal called a meeting of OPEC, the organization of oil producing countries. It was decided that these countries would drastically reduce oil production. The result was that by 1974 there was a shortage of oil in the world.

Due to this, oil prices increase by 300%. This affects America and its rich fellow countries the most. There is an economic crisis there. Inflation starts touching the sky.

The next year in 1975, 6 rich countries of the world, troubled by the rising oil prices, came together. They formed an organization to pursue their interests. This was called 'Group of Six' i.e. G6. These included America, Germany, Japan, Italy, Britain and France. In 1976, with the joining of Canada, this organization became G7.

When Soviet Russia broke into pieces, it was also included in G7, then why was it removed?
When G7 was formed in 1975, it was the era of Cold War. On one side were the Soviet Union and the countries supporting it. They together formed a group by the name of Warsaw. To counter this, anti-left western countries like France, Italy, West Germany (at that time Germany was divided into two parts), America, Britain, Japan and Canada came together on one platform.

Their aim was to sit together and discuss economic issues related to their interests and to counter Soviet Russia.

The second phase of the G7 organization began in 1998. Soviet Russia had split into many pieces. The Cold War had ended. Only then was Russia included in it. At that time the President of Russia was Boris Yeltsin. At that time Russia's policy also supported America and the Western countries.

After Russia joined the G7, its name changed to G8. Russia was expelled from the organization in 2014 after its intrusion into Crimea.

The picture is of the first G7 summit held in France.

The picture is of the first G7 summit held in France.

Question 1: What is the work of G7
In the first meeting of the G7 organization, a plan was made to deal with the oil crisis started by Saudi. Also, the exchange rate crisis started at that time. This means that the US de-linked the value of the dollar from gold. The US did this to increase the dominance of the dollar instead of gold in the world. However, this started economic problems for other countries.

Meanwhile, the western countries felt that they needed to come together to formulate policies at the financial level so that they could solve their business and trade issues among themselves.

Since then, this organization meets every year. These countries discuss important issues related to world politics and economy.

Example- In the G7 meeting held in 2022, all seven countries had announced to impose economic sanctions on Russia due to the Ukraine war. At the same time, last year China was warned against its debt trap.

Question 2: Did the G7 countries come together to establish their dominance in the world?
When G7 was started in 1975, these countries controlled 60% of the world's GDP. Their per capita income was also high. This organization promotes the interests of rich countries in the world.

On the other hand, the countries of the Global South, that is, the poor and developing countries, have never agreed with the policies of the G7. The reason for this is that these countries want to keep various institutions of the world like WTO, IMF and World Bank under their control. These countries want to keep making rules according to their own wishes on issues like trade and climate change in the world.

Example– These countries subsidize their farmers in different ways, but prevent India, China and others from doing so.

The reason for this is that when the Indian government gives subsidy to its farmers, the grain produced by India becomes cheaper than the grain produced by countries like America. This causes loss to the western countries.

These countries stop other countries from using coal to prevent climate change. Whereas these countries have developed by using coal themselves.

Question 7: Can India also join this club of the richest countries?

answer: According to the Hudson Institute, India has participated in this summit 11 times. It has been invited as a guest for the last 5 years. Due to this, at times, India seems to be a permanent member of G7. Consider this a small anecdote…

It was 2007, G7 summit was to be held in Germany. The then Chancellor of Germany had invited India as a guest. At that time UPA was in power in the country and Manmohan Singh was the Prime Minister. India did receive the invitation from Germany, but Chancellor Merkel allotted less time to the guest countries to present their views. This angered Manmohan and he threatened not to attend the summit. After this, to convince him, Germany had to increase the time given to India and other guest countries.

Former German Chancellor Angela Merkel with former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (File photo)

Former German Chancellor Angela Merkel with former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (File photo)

The reason for India being repeatedly invited to the G7 is its growing influence and responsibility in the world. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is losing its influence. Due to the deteriorating relations between the US and China-Russia, the UNSC is no longer able to take strong decisions.

For example, North Korea repeatedly violates the rules by testing missiles, yet the UNSC cannot impose strict sanctions against North Korea because China and Russia veto it.

In the 1980s, the GDP of the G7 countries was about 60 percent of the world's total GDP. Now it has decreased to about 40 percent. Apart from the influential countries of the G7, its influence is likely to decrease further in the future. India can become a new member of the G7. There are many reasons for this. 1. India ranks third in the world in terms of defense expenditure. 2. India's GDP is equal to Britain and is more than France, Italy and Canada. 3. India is a democratic country, so the G7 invites India every year and wants to discuss every major issue of the world with it.

Question 3: Is there an attempt to make India anti-China and anti-Russia by attending G7 meetings?

answer: No, India's foreign policy is quite clear. India's policy has always been of multi-alignment, that is, India has never supported any one group.

India also cooperates with western countries. India has good economic relations with western countries. These countries are also democratic like India. Most of India's skilled workers go to America for work and studies. Despite this, India does not come under pressure from America.

Apart from this, India also does not participate in the policy of America and Western countries of imposing sanctions on other countries.

Example- India did not support any one camp in the war between Russia and Ukraine. Whereas America kept pressuring to support Ukraine. At the same time, if India is going to the G7 meeting, then it is also a member of G20. India is also a member of BRICS, SCO.

Question 4: What is the benefit to India by attending the G7 meeting despite not being a member?

answer: India can benefit in three ways by the Prime Minister's visit to this meeting…

1. In G7, there are many trilateral meetings i.e. meetings of three different countries are held as per the need. In this, India can also sit with any two countries and present its views on any issue.

2. India does not agree with the G7 countries on many issues. Such as climate change and business-trade. In such a situation, by participating in the G7 meeting, we can present the viewpoint of developing countries to the rich countries of the G7. However, India's role in decision making is quite limited.

At the same time, the G7 countries also do not agree with many things of India. Like issuing free visas to our workers. India does not agree with the policy of interference and overthrowing power in other countries of the G7 countries.

These countries interfere in the internal matters of other countries without a decision being taken in the UN, India does not agree with this. When they invite us to India as guests, we are able to present our side in these matters.

India follows international law. It is easier for the countries of the world to trust India than China. They feel it is important to keep India on their side.

Question 5: How much unity is there among the G7 countries?

answer: There is a lot of unity among the G7 countries for their own benefits. However, there are many differences among them as well. America's policy is to always keep these countries within the ambit of NATO. It does not want any other military organization to be formed. It feels that if Germany and France form another organization, NATO will be in danger.

In 2018, US President Donald Trump refused to sign the G7 joint statement paper. He accused Canada of imposing high tariffs on his workers and companies. At that time, this attitude of America had increased concern among the rest of the countries of the organization. However, Biden has addressed those concerns.

However, when it comes to opposing China, there is no unity among these countries. Last year, French President Emmanuel Macron, after returning from China, said that he supports the One China Policy. On the contrary, America supports Taiwan. Apart from France, Germany and Italy also have good relations with China.

Question 6: Why is G7 criticized?

answer: There are 6 reasons why the rest of the world is angry with the G7…

  • G7 promotes the interests of rich countries. It does not favour other countries.
  • These organizations do help poor countries sometimes, but they do not support other countries in major issues like sharing technology.
  • These countries had refused to give Covid vaccine technology to poor countries even during the pandemic.
  • They do not consult other countries in taking major decisions. For example, after the Ukraine war, the consent of other countries was not taken in imposing sanctions on Russia.
  • Whenever there is talk of reform in big international institutions, the lobby of these 7 countries becomes stronger.
  • These countries no longer want changes in international laws and rules according to the times. They are busy in fulfilling their own interests in WTO.

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